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Acreditari nationale si internationale ale CNCCRCanise inregistrate in Cartea de Origine a CNCCRCartea de Origine Romana COR-CNCCR   Sectiunea COR 1000-4279   Sectiunea COR 4280-5607   Sectiunea COR 5608-8099Ciobanescul de Bucovina o MINCIUNA imensaClubul National de Caini Ciobanesti Romanesti contactConcursuri-Contests   1998      Campionatul Ciobanestilor Romanesti Floreasca-Bucuresti         Afisul primului Campionat National         Catalogul primului Campionat National      Finala Bucuresti 1998         dr J-M-Paschoud presedintele Comisiei de Standarde a Federatiei Chinologice Internationale FCI      Iasi 1998      World Trade Center 1998 Bucuresti   1999      Azuga 1999      Bucuresti Finala 1999 Circ      Bucuresti Floreasca 1999      Iasi 1999   2000      Azuga 2000      Bucuresti 16-12-2000 Circ      Bucuresti World Trade Center 2000      Floreasca 23-04-2000      Sibiu 07-10-2000      World Dog Show Milano 2000   2001      Azuga 2001      Barlad 2001      Bucuresti World Trade Center 2001   2002      Azuga 2002      Barlad 2002      Bucuresti World Trade Center 2002      Craiova 2002      Mangalia 2002   2003      Azuga 2003      Barlad 2003      Brasov 26-03-2003      Bucuresti Olimpia 17-06-2003      Craiova 2003      Targoviste 18-03-2003      World Trade Center 2003   2004      Azuga 22-02-2004      Barlad 07-11-2004      Brasov 2004      Buzau 26-09-2004      Craiova 2004      Iasi 2004      Ploiesti 23-04-2004      ROMEXPO 05-06-2004      Rucar 2004-OMOLOGAREA UCI      Timisoara 2004   2005      Adunarea Generala CNCCR Bucuresti 2005      Alexandria 2005      Barlad 2005      Brasov 19-02-2005      Cluj 2005      Comisani 2005      Craiova 2005      Expo Pastoralis Rucar 2005      Gura Humorului 2005      Iasi 2005      Pitesti 19-03-2005      Ploiesti 2005      Ramnicu Valcea 2005      Targoviste 08-05-2005      TIBCO Bucuresti 2005   2006      Azuga 2006      Barlad 2006      Cluj 19-05-2006      Craiova 2006      Expo Pastoralis Rucar 2006      Finala Campionatului International al CNCCR Brasov 25-02-2006      ROMEXPO 05-06-2006      Suceava Ilisesti 2006      Targoviste 05-11-2006   2007      Craiova 2007      Iasi 2007      Ilisesti 2007      TIBCO 2007   2008      Comisani 2008      Craiova 2008      Expo Pastoralis 2008 Rucar   2009      Codlea 2009      Comisani 2009      Craiova 2009      Expo Pastoralis Rucar 12-09-2009      Ilisesti 2009      TIBCO 2009   2010      Ilisesti 2010      Parada Ciobanestilor Romanesti OTV   2011      Filipestii de Padure 17-09-2011      Ilisesti 2011   2012      Bucuresti prezentare oficiala rase romanesti 2012      Targoviste 20 05 2012Consangvinizarile si rolul lor in chinologie - The consangvinization process in chinology   Consangvinizari corecte la carpatin   Consangvinizari corecte la mioritic   Consangvinizari gresite la carpatin   Consangvinizari gresite la mioriticCONTACTCorespondente chinologice   Adresa Ministerului Agriculturii catre ACHR   COMUNICAT DE PRESA al ASOCIATIEI CHINOLOGICE ROMANE ACHR   Comunicat de presa al AUTORITATII NATIONALE CANINE DIN ROMANIA   mesage from Mr Jean Maurice PASCHOUD president of Standards Committee of FCI   Scrisoare deschisa adresata dnei Anca Giura arbitru international   Scrisoare deschisa adresata dnului Gaspar Viorel   Scrisoarea de refuz din partea FCI a la dosarului trimis de ACHR   Scrisoarea de sprijin a activitatii CNCCR din parte Presedintelui Romaniei dnul Emil Constantinescu   Scrisoarea deschisa a Ministerului Agriculturii   scrisoarea Facultatii de Medicina Veterinara catre FCIDefecte explicitate la carpatin   Defecte de cap la carpatin   Defecte de culoare la carpatin   Defecte de osatura la carpatin   Defecte de prezentare   Defecte de talie la carpatin   Metisi de carpatiniDefecte explicitate la mioritic   Defecte ale cozii la mioritic   Defecte de culoare la mioritic   Defecte de dentitie   Defecte de osatura-mers-etc la mioritic   Defecte de talie la mioritic   Intretinere si prezentare defectuoasa a robei mioriticului   Lipsa parului pe cap si pe labe la miorticDespre rasa CorbDocumente tipizate folosite in CNCCREmisiune Antena 1FCI-dosar de omologare rase romanesti   CV Dr Andrei Tanase FMV Bucuresti   CV dr Ioan Miclaus decan al FMV Bucuresti   dosarul medical al clinicii de chirurgie din FMV Bucuresti   Dosarul medical al clinicii de ginecologie-obstetrica a FMV BucurestiFilatelie caninaForumFotografii pentru explicitarea standardului oficial al rasei ciobanesc romanesc carpatin   Ursu etalonul rasei mioriticGaleria Campionilor   Galeria Campionilor Carpatini      femele      masculi   Galeria Campionilor Mioritici      campioni declarati in alte tari      femele mioritic      masculi mioriticIasmin de RomaniaIstoria prezentarii raselor romanesti in strainatate   1986 Berlin   1993 Chisinau   1994 Belgia -Centenarul Asociatiei Saint Hubert   1995 Euro Dog Show Charleroi Belgia   1995 Ziua Nationala a Romaniei la Bruxelles   1996 raspunsul FCI la dosarul trimis de ACHR   2000 World Dog Show Milano ItaliaLinii de sange la carpatin   linii de sange consangvinizate   linii de sange pe 3 generatii fara consangvinizareLinii de sange la mioritic   linii de amelioratori genetici la mioritic   linii pe 3 generatii fara consangvinizare la mioriticLista arbitrilor si candidatilor de arbitrii CNCCRMASS MEDIA   Arta and Entertainment 15 07 2005   Article from Nine oClock   articol 9AM news 2005   Articol Adevarul   Articol Adevarul martie 2003   Articol Agro Business 2009   articol Atlas Magazin   Articol Banateanul   articol Best Magazin   Articol Curierul Judetean 2001   Articol Curierul National 5 mai 2004   articol despre omologarea ciobanestilor romanesti 05 05 2005   Articol din Ziua si Evenimentul Zilei 1999   Articol Editie Speciala Craiova 2009   articol Evenimentul Zilei 03 12 1998   Articol Evenimentul Zilei 10 01 1999   Articol Evenimentul Zilei 1999   Articol Evenimentul Zilei 2004 omologare   Articol Gardianul 2004   Articol Iasi 26 04 2004   articol Jurnalul National decembrie 2006   Articol Libertatea 04 04 1999   Articol Libertatea 11 04 2005   Articol Libertatea 23 04 2003   articol Lumea Animalelor 1994   Articol Manneken Pis 2003   articol Mihaela Ionita   Articol Monitorul 2010   Articol Presa Online 2007   Articol Presa online Iasi 2007   articol Prieteni fara grai 1   articol Prieteni fara grai 1998   articol Prieteni fara grai 2   Articol publicat in USA   Articol revista Lumea   Articol Romanian VIP USA   Articol Stanley bet 2009   articol Stiinta si Tehnica   articol Terra 2000   articol Tu si Cainele 1999   articol Tu si Cainele 2   Articol ziarul Expres 2005   Articol ziarul Obiectiv Suceava   Articol Ziua   Articol Ziua 1998   Articol ziua 1999   Articol Ziua 1999 - 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membru din 8 mai 2011

Scientific report of the Surgery Department from the Veterinary Medicine University

Scientific report of the Surgery Department from the Veterinary Medicine University regarding specific medical aspects encountered at the Romanian Shepherd Mioritic and Carpathian Shepherd dog breeds, necessary to be known during the process of the international recognition of the two breeds

In Romania the dog research activity has very rarely been executed and only at the Veterinarian Universities throughout the country and in Bucharest and never within the chinological clubs existent until until 1998.
The characteristics of the Romanian Mioritic and Carpathian shepherd dog breeds and also the development of the national chinological sciences after 1989, have made necessary to appear and to develop some of the studies, concepts, techniques and new methods of working with these aspects.
In this way, The University for Agricultural science and veterinarian medicine from Bucharest , with the help of FMV Bucharest, began in 1998 a collaboration on multiple levels with the National Club for Romanian Shepherds-CNCCR from Bucharest, having both the common goal of international recognition of the two dog breeds .
This organization has been chosen due to its specific non profit activity, its purpose regarding the recognition of the two breeds , its unique character , being the only Romanian chinological department specialized for these two breeds.
Institution specialized in these two dog , breeds but also due to its official nominee coming from the Department of Diet and Agriculture through the order 17178/1998 , through which the department recognized the CNCCR as being the only habilitated institution able to handle all problems related to the Romanian shepherd breeds , both internal and international .
Following the official visit of the president of the Standard and Recognizion Commission of the FCI International Chinological Federation – dr. Jean Maurice Paschoud in December 1998 , during the scientific conferences led by him and which took place at the University of Veterinary Medicine with the main theme of scientific realization of the files for the international recognition of the two dog breeds together with members of the University desks and the National Club of the Romanian Shepherds-CNCCR , a series of important aspects were pointed out which need to be followed in the process of creating the files for recognition from the medical and scientific points of view . The conclusions drawn were put into practice during the National Program of Selection and Reproduction realized between 1999 and the current year by the University and the CNCCR.
From the point of view of the Surgery Clinic, this program has materialized in the following aspects:
1.The creation of the techno-medical base and the techniques for measuring the parameters of the two dog breeds starting 04.04.1998 based on criteria required by the International Canine Federation FCI and they were a national premiere.
2.The creation of databases together with the National Club of Romanian Shepherds CNCCR regarding the number and quality of authorized breeders and their products. These databases were obtained by verifying a number of 2675 dogs belonging to both dog breeds , from the point of view of the hip displasya , different forms of rachitis, ophthalmic heterochromia, progressive retinian atrophy, epilepsy forms etc
3.Creation of council methods for owners and breeders of such dogs , regarding the advantages of using authorized breeders , for the purpose of dropping and eliminating risk factors regarding the appearance and/or perpetuation of genetic transmission diseases.
4.Creation of blood lines under strict medical control with the purpose of avoiding frequent frauds met under this aspect in Romanian chinology
5.Publication of scientific articles in specialized media for the purpose of growing the popularity of this program and its advantages through the extension to other dog breeds.
6.Training, recognition and annual recycling of referees and candidates for referee job for the two dog breeds from within the National Club CNCCR b, is being made with the direct involvement of a representative for the University, in the purpose of raising the level of theoretical and practical training of the referees


1.The creation of the techno-medical base and the techniques for measuring the parameters of the two dog breeds starting 04.04.1998 in a national premiere in Romania.

The first attempt of standardization of the two dog breeds, cats back to 1984, when the members of the Iasi University of Veterinary Medicine together with the Romanian Chinological Association ACHR, Selection and Agricultural Reproduction under the command of the Department of Agriculture and Diet – Suceava County Branch , initiated in Suceava the first standardization action for the two dog breeds, by making some measurements on a non-specified number of dogs from that area .
Unfortunately, even though the petition for recording these first standards was recorded and published in the Official Monitor – the Government’s official newspaper, it was not accompanied by the text of the standards.
The first correct attempt of standardization from the scientific point of view has been made at the first stage of the National Championship, organized by the National Club together with the University of Veterinary Medicine in 04.04.1998, the date when members of the board, took zoometric measurements on a number of 436 dogs belonging to both breeds.
Having obtaining the measurements results, the first official standards were made and recorded by the National Club and the Department of Agriculture and Diet according to the requirements of the International Canine Federation .
This way, a number of 36 definitive parameters have been created of which we can mention : garrot and back height, nose length, skull, ears, neck, body, members and bones composing them : hook, tibia, femur etc and tail; angulation of articulations, skull dimensions; nose, skull, chest, thoraw and pelvin biped large; length, density, color and type of hair; the aspects of tail; form and color of the eyes and the frequency of ophthalmic heterochromia, eyelids, nose and lips depigmentation, third – eyelid protrusion< number, forms, color and dimension of nails and the procentage and number of posteriors rudimentar fingers; forms and dimension of pows; number and the aspects of the teeth

2.The creation of databases together with the National Club of Romanian Shepherds Dogs – CNCCR regarding the number and quality of authorized breeders and their products. These databases were obtained by verifying a number of _______ dogs belonging to both dog breeds , from the point of view of the hip dysplasia , different forms of rachitis, ocular heterochromia, progressive retinal atrophy, epilepsy

The control of the entropion

Entropion, inward rolling or turning of the eyelid margin, is a common eyelid disorder.
It may by congenital, spastic or acquired; the congenital entropion can by an hereditary disease in romanian shepherd: 12 – 15% in Mioritic Romanian Shepherd and 7-9% in Carpatin Roumanian Shepherd
Clinical signs: epiphora, blepharospasm (the eyelid surface may be excoriated and white from constant with tears), rubbing at the affected area, corneal ulceration and vascularisation in chronic cases, purulent conjunctivitis, rolling of the lid.
Congenital entropion usually affects both eyes, although occasionally only eye is affected.
The whole length of the lid may be affected in severe cases, but the affected area is usually restricted to one portion of the margin; the upper lid is less commonly affected than the lower; congenital entropion in dogs frequently affects the lateral parts of both the upper and lower lid.
The treatment in congenital entropion is only surgical and is necessary to be made at an ophthalmology clinic by a veterinary ophthalmologist with experience
In nature, the subjects with congenital entropion will not surviving because they made the secondary infections in the eyes.


3.Creation of council methods for owners and breeders of such dogs , regarding the advantages of using authorized breeders , for the purpose of dropping and eliminating risk factors regarding the appearance and/or perpetuation of genetic transmission diseases.

The initiative of the National Club of Romanian Shepherds CNCCR to introduce in a national premiere, as a form in the reproduction activity , the mating contract - the birth of the puppies was big step in raising the safety for the mating of the dogs registered as being parents . The idea of registering this form for the insemination type : natural, artificial, both methods, permitted the representatives of our board to verify and authenticate the missing of congenital anomalies or hereditary diseases before the mating , when they took place at the gynecology – obstetrics clinic of the University of Veterinary Medicine.
The National Club of Romania Shepherds CNCCR representative would take part at the medical exam, certifying through his signature both the checking of the partners as well as the execution of the mating along with the owner’s signatures. Even from the beginning the owner of a Romanian shepherd is guided to the club by our clinic for verification and recording of the growing parameters, correct medication for growth and maintenance.
At the clinic the owner is informed about the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of treatment and prophylaxis of illnesses specific to canine breeds by the clinic’s qualified personal and a preliminary check for these illnesses and anomalies with hereditary transmission is made.
The surgery clinic’s representative often explains the importance of this act from the medical and scientific point of view, presenting to the Romanian shepherd owner the entire cycle of activities that take place in the clinic and help both the animal and the owner to become familiar with the presence of the referee and doctor, avoiding this way the typical stress of such an encounter. This way, one of the problems raised in the maintenance of the specimens of Romanian shepherds has been explained and was understood. This consists of the tendency of appearance for ear infections, as a result of un appropriate cleaning of the ears.
Another method adopted together with the National Club of Romanian Shepherds CNCCR, by our surgery clinic was that of finding the optimal ways of reducing the appearance of specimens from the Romanian shepherd breed with no hair on their nose and paws, fact which is considered to be an eliminating factor in reproduction and is frequently found in breeding house and kennels as:“de Brillantim” , “de Radauti”, “Gheorghe Cretu House”, “de Greycib”, and specimens coming from breeders and owners (shepherds) not registered with the National Club or Romanian Shepherds CNCCR from Moldova area and Transylvania.
This disease is corroborated with others genetic diseases such as : ocular heterochromia- met at some products of the kennel “Gheorghe Cretu House” and/or depigmentation of the iris and eyelids in other house/ dogs breeding


4.Creation of the blood lines under strict medical control with the purpose of avoiding frequent frauds met under this aspect in Romanian ACHR association
Through its own activity reproduction control, the National Club of Romanian Shepherds CNCCR, having at its disposal the scientific and technological means to investigate and perform artificial inseminations provided by the gynecology – obstetrics clinic, was able to form ____ lines of blood on 3 known generations and without inbreeding and ____ lines of inbreeding destined to the amelioration of the breed. Also, with the participation of the Surgery Clinic representatives, the National Club of Romanian Shepherds , has significantly raised the level of confidence in these institutions and in the quality of the performances in a time of a low level of trust in reproduction activities made by other canine organization which are full of errors and fakes in statements regarding the ….. like it is stated in the note of the minister of agriculture from the year 2000 or by comparing different papers of origin emitted for Romanian shepherd dogs by organizations that are not authorized by the Romanian Government and recognized or not by the International Canine Federation . For to be well understanding how hard it is to put, in the context of the canine movement in Romania excepting the National Club of Romanian Shepherds , a diagnostic regarding the hip displasya, we can only think that X rays and papers that cannot be verified for the presented dogs, emitted by unspecialized doctors. So we think, that at least for the selection of specimens with hip displasya in Romania for the German Shepard canine breed, it would theoretically be necessary for the German method to be adopted. The animal would be considered having hip displasya if three specialists would give the verdict and two would say the animal is healthy.
Unfortunately, the lack of will to work together shown by the clinics of the University of Veterinary Medicine lead to the appearance of a very large number of specimens other dog breeds with major genetic malformations and that is why we consider an example this partnership between the University of Veterinary Medicine and the National Club of Romanian Shepherds and the breeders and owners of Romanian shepherds.
Between 1998 and 2003, after verifying , with these procedures , only in the case of the University of Veterinary Medicine , the surgery clinic verify the quality at the reproductions subjects last of 1200 dogs Romanian shepherds, the National Club of Romanian Shepherds , was able to give the recommendation for reproduction R(++) and implicitly confirmed the obtaining of titles for National Champion for number of ___ males and females; the recommendation for assisted reproduction R(-) to a number of 400 reproductive males and excluded from reproduction 120 male specimens (under standard height, quality and insufficient coverage of hair, ocular heterochromia)
A number of 2650 of specimens of Romanian shepherds Mioritic and 1234 Carpathian shepherds are registered with the National Club of Romanian Shepherds CNCCR. All these dogs were chinnological registered from 1984.
This way were created, based on verifications of reproductive quality a number of inbreeding lines destined exclusively for breeds amelioration and a number of ____ lines on 3 generations without inbreeding destined to realize the requirements of the International Canine Federation for the file of international recognize.



5.Publication of the scientific issues in the special revues and magazines for a better media coverage of this program and the advantage in other dogs breeds.

Lately, within the University of Veterinary Medicine have developed like a necessity, small animals specializations, the first place being occupied by canine pathology.
If we add to all this to the fact that the university of Bucharest was proposed to be accredited in the European Community and for that in the analytical program were introduced new disciplines in order to make more uniform the teaching process such as Small animals clinic. It is obvious the increasing interest for doctor specialization in canine pathology and for a discipline taught separately in this field.
At the last National Congress of Veterinary Medicine the number of the works on small animal pathology represented over 50% of all the works presented.
Presently, the teaching stuff of the University is involved in different activities that should make popular pets pathology using the mass media such as two permanent TV shows and 3 permanent radio broadcasts. There are also several publications having as subject canine pathology, as for example: two weekly magazines having informative and publicist character and two monthly magazines with scientific character.
Once or twice a month the University is host of several seminaries on small animal pathology, those seminaries being sponsored by firms distributing medicaments and animal food. Lectors of the University and invitees from other countries such as Hungary, Belgium, France, Slovakia, Austria or Poland are invited to sustain these seminaries.


6. Training , recognition and annual recycling of referees and candidates for referee job for the two dog breeds from within the National Club , is being made with the direct involvement of a representative for the University , in the purpose of raising the level of theoretical and practical training of the referees

Right from the beginning of the preparation of the candidates for referees positions and internal / international referees of the National Club of Romanian Shepherds, certified for Romanian shepherd breeds go through a course of preparation and information at the surgery clinic, whose role is to inform correctly and to offer a knowledge package , scientific and medical, strictly necessary for the good development of the activities as an authorized canine referee for these two dog breeds. During the recycling and annual exams the referees of the National Club of Romanian Shepard have to go through a quiz with questions from anatomy, canine pathology made up by the clinic’s specialists.
In the purpose of growing the relational interactivity between the Surgery Clinic of the University of Veterinary Medicine and the National Club of Romanian Shepherds CNCCR, a member of the clinic was certified to be an internal referee and two other members as candidates for a referee job for the two dog breeds dating back to 1998.

Head of the Surgery Department ,

I. Miclăuş DVM, PhD
Iasi 1985 first mesurements for the mioritic breed
Iasi 1985 first mesurements for the mioritic breed
FMV Bucharest made the mesurements for restandardization of the mioritic breed
FMV Bucharest made the mesurements for restandardization of the mioritic breed
FMV team measuring the height and angles
FMV team measuring the height and angles
FMV team mesuring the cranian report
FMV team mesuring the cranian report
FMV - FCI - Rom
FMV - FCI - Rom
during all the contests FMV team of mesurements made her duty
during all the contests FMV team of mesurements made her duty
checking the dents of a carpatin
checking the dents of a carpatin
details of mioritic eye
details of mioritic eye
mioritic eye details
mioritic eye details
Dr.J.M.Paschoud checking the methods used by FMV&CNCCR for the romanian breeds
Dr.J.M.Paschoud checking the methods used by FMV&CNCCR for the romanian breeds
Seminary at FMV with Dr.J.M.Pascoud -FCI president of Standards Committee
Seminary at FMV with Dr.J.M.Pascoud -FCI president of Standards Committee
PhD,DVM I.Miclaus & CNCCR president deliberating for BIS
PhD,DVM I.Miclaus & CNCCR president deliberating for BIS


Comentarii album • 1
CanisaDeRomania 10 noiembrie 2015  
Theories of Pathogenesis

Canine hip dysplasia is a complex disease. It is a concentration of factors from a pool of genetic weaknesses and environmental stresses that fall into a programmed pattern of progressive remodeling and degenerative joint disease. The degree of involvement varies from minute changes in bone structure to total destruction of the hip joint. Investigators have searched intensively for genetic, chemical, and metabolic defects, but the cause has remained obscure.

Hip dysplasia affects humans and all other domestic mammals. In humans, 1.3 children in 1000 are affected. In dogs the prevalence may run over 50% in large dogs if control measures have not been practiced. Few data are available on the prevalence of hip dysplasia in other mammals, but it is thought to be low. The disease is undoubtedly rare in undomesticated animals.

No specific genetic pattern of inheritance has been demonstrated in this variable disease. It has been demonstrated that both genetic and environmental influences contribute to development, regardless of the species affected.(15,31, 32,40,74,76) Consequently, the disease has been designated as polygenic or multigenic.(28) As in most polygenic diseases, there are both major and minor causative factors. There is no evidence that a primary defect of bone exists but rather the disease is a failure of the muscles and other soft tissues to hold the hip joint in full congruity.(31,32) This is further supported by the fact that bony dysplasia can be increased, decreased, or prevented by controlling the degree of joint instability and incongruity.(53) No other malformations are associated with the disease.(79) A causal relationship between muscles and soft tissue defects or pathologic changes other than lack of muscle mass or strength has not been established.(40,41)

Experimentally, hip dysplasia may be produced in many ways.(43,56,74,76,87,88) These include any circumstances that contribute to an unstable hip joint, namely, adductor forces, lack of muscle strength, chemical relaxation of the pelvic soft tissues, traumatic injury to the hip joint, and overloading of the joint by weight. Hip dysplasia is a concentration of factors from a pool of genetic weaknesses and environmental stresses that fall into a programmed pattern of progressive remodeling and degenerative joint disease.

The general cause of hip dysplasia, when defined, must be broad enough to explain its development, not only in dogs, but also in all other affected animals. Many genetic and environmental factors can trigger events that bring about the condition secondarily.(74,77,79,88) Hip dysplasia, therefore, is not one disease but many diseases that result in common degenerative lesions of the hip joints.(77)

Hip dysplasia has been observed in cats (27,35) and in most breeds of dogs; however, it is a greater problem in some breeds(65) than in others. The true prevalence of hip dysplasia among breeds of purebred dogs is not known, but data from the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) on the first 36,000 pelvic radiographs evaluated has given insight into answering this question (Table 83-1).

The percentage of dogs of various breeds affected by hip dysplasia is not a true representation of the prevalence of the disease in these breeds because radiographs depicting obvious dysplasia were screened by referring veterinarians and not submitted. Therefore, the overall prevalence of hip dysplasia is higher than that represented in the analysis (Table 83-1). The rankings of the breeds are consistent with those obtained previously from smaller populations.(36) All breeds were screened in a similar manner.

Table 83-1 Pelvic Radiographic Diagnosis
Body Size

The breeds with the lowest prevalence of hip dysplasia are near the size of the ancestral dog. The bones are small in diameter and smooth, the feet are small and well arched, and the shape of the head is long and narrow.

The giant breeds with the highest prevalence of hip dysplasia are two to three times larger than the ancestral dog. Their bones are coarse and large in diameter, with prominent protrusions and depressions. The feet are large and splayed, and the head is wide and oversized.

Body Type

In general, the body conformation of the breeds with the lowest prevalence of hip dysplasia is slender and trim. The skin is thin, smooth, and stretched tightly over the underlying tissues. The muscles are prominent, hard, and full-bellied. At dissection in these breeds, the skin and subcutaneous tissues and fascia rarely contain over 1% to 2% fat by weight. The joint ligaments are well developed; the fibers are coarse, closely packed, and relatively free of fat. The well-formed pelvic and thigh muscles are attached to broad, coarse tendons that are attached securely to the bones. These dogs are fleet-footed and well-coordinated in their movements.

Of the high-risk group, the four breeds of the giant type are not only two to three times the size of the ancestral dog, but their body conformation is heavy, round, and stocky. Acromegalic characteristics are present to some extent in all four breeds. Fat is abundant in the subcutaneous and fascial spaces and commonly accounts for 5% to 10% of the weight of the soft tissues of the hindquarters. In comparison with the low-dysplasia group, the muscles are less prominent and less developed. Fat is infiltrated into the tendons and ligaments. The fibers of these two structures are smaller in diameter than those of the low-risk group. The gait of the giant breeds is less graceful and slower than that of the smaller breeds.

Growth Pattern

Breeds with the highest prevalence of hip dysplasia grow and mature more rapidly than those in the low-risk group. Starting at birth, this group gains rapidly. The pups of these breeds are aggressive eaters, both as they nurse and as they take supplemental food. In a study involving 222 German shepherds, 63% of the dogs that weighed more than the mean of this group at 60 days of age were dysplastic at 1 year of age, whereas only 37% of those less than the mean became dysplastic. The same rapid rise in weight in other breeds of the group at high-risk for dysplasia has been observed.(63)

Hip dysplasia has not been reported in the wild undomesticated carnivorous animals, such as wolves and foxes. A study of their pattern of growth found that the pups were slow-growing and late maturing. The young pups were whelped in dens. As newborns, they received their nourishment by nursing during the first few weeks. When more food was required, the mother killed rodents and either brought them to the den or ate the animal where it was killed and then returned to the den where the ingested rodents were regurgitated for the young to eat.(61) Young carnivores were quite mature and 6 to 10 months old before they began to hunt. The amount of food available for the growing members of a litter was limited. This caused the young to mature slowly and remain thin and light for their body size. Such an environment favored the completion of ossification and developmental maturity of the joint before the hips could be subjected to possible injury, incongruity, or subluxation from excessive extrinsic forces (e.g., excessive body weight) (65,69)

Genetic Influences and Heritability

Few genes analyzed thus far directly affect osseous structures.(17) The shape of bones reflects changes by biomechanical stresses.(15)

In the dog no clear-cut pattern of inheritance has been recognized.(23,28,30) This means that many genes are affected, and polygenic traits are subject to environmental modifications. New data have substantiated these findings.(29)

The spread of hip dysplasia centers around the genetic transmission and heritability of a particular body size, type, conformation, movement, growth pattern, and temperament. This conclusion is based on the facts that the prevalence of hip dysplasia is approximately the same in a number of breeds with similar body characteristics and there is no gene flow between these purebred breeds. Since these facts must be respected, biomechanical and environmental factors associated with certain body conformation and size must be considered as causes.(69)

Critical evaluation of the heritability of hip dysplasia has been made in the German shepherd in 244 offspring from 54 full subfamilies. In one report, "heritability was defined as a property not only of the character (trait) but also the population and the environmental circumstances to which individuals are subjected. Heritability, because it represents the proportion of the total phenotypical variance, receives the attributes of a positive number which may range from 0 to 1.0 in magnitude".(29) On this scale and based on evaluations of radiographs from 2 year-old dogs, the heritability was given an average estimate of 0.25. The conclusions were that canine hip dysplasia be termed a moderately heritable diseased.(30)

In a study involving 236 German shepherds, it was demonstrated that the most reliable way to eliminate canine hip dysplasia was through the establishment of "pedigree depth," that is, by the use of ancestral lines of dogs radiographically free of hip dysplasia.(33)

Results of controlled breeding programs in Sweden further indicated that the prevalence of hip dysplasia in the German shepherd was substantially reduced by mating only dogs with radiographically normal hips.(7,50) Similar decreases in prevalence have occurred in another controlled breeding program in a colony of guide dogs (Seeing Eye, Inc. Morristown, NJ).

In another account, with 584 progeny in a closed colony of German shepherds, it was shown that the prevalence of hip dysplasia was noticeably reduced by selectively breeding dogs proved radiographically to have normal hips at 1 year of age or older. In 3-1/2 years the incidence of hip dysplasia was lowered from 39% to less than 17%.(64) The male dogs in this colony had a wide variation in their ability to transmit normal hips to their progeny. For example, only 8.7% of the progeny of one dog with radiographically normal hips at 2 years of age developed hip dysplasia, whereas 37.8% of the pups of another dog with similar radiologic evaluation mated to the same bitches developed hip dysplasia.(20)

Environmental and Man-Made Influences

Embryologically, articular joints are differentiated as units in situ from a mass of skeletal mesenchyme.(90) Development progresses normally in each joint as long as there is full congruity between the parts. The congruity remains as long as the supporting tissues are strong enough to withstand the mechanical or physiological factors that tend to pull them apart.(77)

In humans, intrauterine stress has been cited as contributing to hip dysplasia, particularly if the fetus is positioned with the legs in adduction and extension.

Hip dysplasia in humans is rarely associated with teratology abnormalities. Other hip abnormalities distinctive from dysplasia, however, are frequently associated with such deformities as clubfoot, hyperextension of the knees, spinal deformities, arthrogryposis multiplex, and chondro-osteodystrophy.(22)

In the young child, the position of the legs during infant care is found to be very important to normal hip development.(71,73,75) Abduction and flexion of the legs has a stabilizing effect on the hip joints. The square diaper favors greater abduction of the legs than does the three cornered diaper. The Bantu baby, who is carried with its front side bound to the mother's back with its legs in acute abduction and flexion, seldom has abnormal hip joints.(71,75) In contrast, the Navajo Indian baby, who spends its first years of life strapped to a cradleboard with the legs in abduction and extension, has a high rate of hip joint instability.(70)

Other factors such as femoral anteversion and spastic shortening of the psoas muscle have been shown to favor acetabular dislocation when the leg was extended.(44) These observations indicate that both environmental and hereditary influences are important.(28,42)

In the dog, the hip joints are normal at birth.(43,68) The long bones of the pup are short during prenatal life, and mechanical stresses that bring about dislocation of the femoral heads are minimal. Teratologic abnormalities of the joints are rare in the dog, except for congenitally dislocated elbows and an occasional clubfoot deformity. Congenital malformation of the hips is also rare.

Extrauterine Influences

EARLY WEIGHT GAIN

In 222 German shepherds born consecutively, 100 were dysplastic, and the prevalence of hip dysplasia at 1 year had a direct correlation with their weight at 60 days of age. The heavier dogs, that is, the heaviest males and heaviest females at 60 days of age, had the highest incidence of hip dysplasia at maturity.(63) (See Fig. 83-2.)

These data suggested a number of indirect genetic factors influencing the rate of hip dysplasia. The aggressiveness in nursing may be inherited, as may be the quality and quantity of the supporting tissues around the hip joint. It was concluded that when growth, gain in weight, and nursing aggressiveness exceeded the strength of the supporting tissues, subluxation and hip dysplasia occurred.(63)

The first subluxating stress on the hips occurs when the pup supports itself while nursing, and the hindlegs are in forceful adduction and extension. The heaviest pups were the more aggressive, worked the hardest while nursing, and spent the most time feeding.(63)

PELVIC MUSCLE MASS

Data indicate that here is a positive correlation between the amount of pelvic muscle mass and the prevalence of hip dysplasia. Of three large breeds of dogs, the greyhound is relatively free of hip dysplasia; over half of the German shepherds are affected with hip dysplasia, and nearly all the July foxhounds are dysplastic.(69)

These data further emphasize that hip dysplasia encompasses biologic height, weight, and muscle bracing. The builder, before architecture was a science, learned that when the height of a structure was doubled, the bracing had to be tripled or the structure would fall of its own weight.(82) This basic rule, learned many years ago, illustrates clearly why a low foot stool fits solidly on the floor and the tall stool of the same area wobbles when supporting weight.(82) Similarly, it has been found that dogs less than 30.5 cm in height and less than 11.3 kg in weight (dachshund) are relatively free of hip dysplasia. On the other hand, at least half the large dogs, those 34 kg or more in weight and more than 50.8 cm in height, are affected with dysplasia.(66)

MUSCLE MYOPATHIES

All newborn mammals, including human infants, undergo many metabolic changes during their transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life. The muscle tissues are relatively immature both anatomically and biochemically at birth. Lack of muscular maturation in the newborn influences the manner in which the newborn responds to function. This immaturity accounts for the failure of many mammals, including the human, dog, and cat, to walk at birth.(88)

There is evidence that the wide range of acetabular and femoral changes occurring in hip dysplasia is the consequence of joint laxity. The possibility that this may be associated with or influenced by the rate of muscle maturation has not been explored. The rate of muscle maturation may be an inherited factor.(12,43) Consequently, the degree of subluxation in the young may be influenced by subnormal muscular function. In humans, the possibility of iliopsoas muscle spasm in the infant has been explored. (41,44)

In the adult dog, the light microscope was used to examine histologically the individual pelvic muscles associated with hip joint motion. Evidence of muscle disease was not recognized. In dogs with advanced hip dysplasia and associated osteoarthritis, atrophy of the pelvic muscles was present but changes such as muscular necrosis, inflammation, and extensive fibrosis were not found.(66,69)

One observer suggested that in young dogs with developing dysplasia, the pectineus muscles were in spasm and contained a degenerative lesion.(4) The pectineus muscle (an adductor), when in spasm, was thought to favor forcing the femoral heads out of the acetabula. This observer further suggested that if the pectineus were cut in the dog at an early age, the occurrence of hip dysplasia would be drastically lowered.(4)

A causal relationship between the pectineus muscles and hip dysplasia was not established in an experiment using the pelvic muscles from Labrador retrievers, German shepherds, Alaskan malamutes, and beagles.(40) Pectineus muscles in these dogs with both normal and dysplastic hips were examined and compared. The relationship between pectineus muscle abnormality and hip dysplasia remains undefined. The pectineus muscles from some young pups showed both hypotrophic and hypertrophic changes. It was suggested that the alterations seen in the pectineus muscles of dysplastic dogs probably represented secondary manifestations associated with a disease of developing hip joints (hip dysplasia).(4,12) The available evidence does not support the concept that abnormal pectineus muscle behavior is a cause of hip dysplasia. (39)

Developmental myopathy with type II fiber hypotrophy has been described in the pectineus muscles of very young dysplastic German Shepherds These investigators failed to establish a relationship between this muscle change, joint laxity, and dysplasia but have suggested the possibility of such a relationship. In their experiments using an enzyme stain, the small fibers stained as type I (white) and the large fibers as type II (dark). They considered the differentiation between small and large fibers in young dogs to be a myopathy. No myopathies were present in either the normal or dysplastic adult dogs in their study.(12) This change in the young dog resembles muscle fiber hypotrophy, which follows the cutting of the nerve to a muscle. These hypotrophied muscles become functional again and the fibers become normal in size when the nerve unites and use is restored.(34) Atrophied muscle due to a severed nerve and immature muscle are similar in appearance. (34)

Metabolic Influences

SEX

In humans, the female is affected with hip dysplasia four to eight times more often than the male.(22) In the dog an equal number of females and males are affected. The reasons for this difference have not been explained. Of 100 dysplastic German shepherds at the Armens Hund Skula (Sweden), 49 were males and 51 were females.(63)

CHEMICAL AND HORMONAL INFLUENCES

Pelvic tissue relaxation is a well-known physiological phenomenon that occurs during the terminal phase of pregnancy in mammals. This reaction has been associated with the female hormone, estrogen. Experimentally, this reaction has been studied by injecting ovarian extracts into dogs to produce pelvic tissue relaxation resembling that seen at the termination of pregnancy. The specific polypeptide hormone that is commonly used is called relaxin. Male and spayed and virgin females when "primed" with estrogen before relaxin was administered responded sufficiently to relax pelvic tissues around the hip joints.(43,55)

The urine of newborns was examined to see if there was a correlation between high estrogen levels and the unstable hip. From the first tests, it appeared that such a correlation existed, but the use of more refined tests failed to verify these findings. (1,3,81) The conclusion is that hormonal influence is not associated with the development of congenital hip dysplasia in humans or animals.(1,3,71,81)

In the dog it has been possible to increase the incidence of hip dysplasia by giving relaxin to newborn pups and to produce hip dysplasia in the greyhound. (18,43,51,55) "It does not prove, however, that estrogens have anything to do with etiology and pathogenesis of spontaneously occurring hip dysplasia."(19) There is no evidence that estrogen levels within the biologic range have a relationship to the incidence of hip dysplasia in dogs.(19,52,55,81)

Defective protein biosynthesis of collagen was suggested as a cause for increasing articular cartilage degradation in osteoarthritic joints. Soluble collagen was reported to be found in the acetabular cartilage of dysplastic dogs, while predominantly insoluble collagen was present in dogs with normal hip joints. It was not possible to relate these changes to hip dysplasia or to osteoarthritis.(39,40)

Inborn metabolic errors of chemical or hormonal origin have not been found in human or canine hip dysplasia.(39,40,52,87)

DIET

A variety of nutritional and mineral supplements have been used in attempts to alter or prevent the course of hip dysplasia in the dog. Diet has not affected the occurrence or course of the disease other than the mechanical effect of increased or decreased weight upon the hip joint.(66)

Prevention

In the child the development of hip dysplasia can be stopped and the condition can be reversed to a stable normal hip if it is discovered early before remodeling has begun. The key to treatment is the restoration of full congruity between the femoral head and acetabulum by placing the legs in an abductor-flexed position.(76,88)

In the young dog genetically conditioned to develop hip dysplasia, confinement to a small cage (1 m3) where the dog spends most of his time sitting on his haunches (abductor-flexed position) will prevent the development of hip dysplasia.(66,68) Surgical improvement of joint congruity can also be very beneficial.

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